HOM/Cyprus Legislation

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CYPRUS LEGISLATION

The Republic of Cyprus has signed, ratified, acceded or succeeded and essentially incorporated into the Republic's municipal law all international treaties and conventions concerning child protection, elimination of racism, fortification and efficient application of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in general. A list of all relevant international treaties and conventions is provided by the official website of the [Ministry of Foreign Affairs][1]. A comprehensive overview of the underlying local legislative framework as well as relevant to the functionality of the SafenetCY Hotline is outlined in this section.

Laws relevant to the Internet

  • Ο περί της Σύμβασης κατά του Εγκλήματος μέσω του Διαδικτύου (Κυρωτικός) Νόμος του 2004 (22(III)/2004)
  • Convention on Cybercrime, Budapest 23.11.2001


The incorporation of the Convention on Cybercrime of Budapest into the Republic's municipal law is stated in Law 22(III)/2004. The following table lists the articles of Chapter II (Measures to be taken at the national level), Section 1 (Substantive criminal law) of the Convention on Cybercrime:

Article Title
2 Illegal access
3 Illegal interception
4 Data interference
5 System interference
6 Misuse of devices
7 Computer-related forgery
8 Computer-related fraud
9 Offenses related to child pornography
10 Offenses related to infringements of copyright and related rights
11 Attempt and aiding or abetting
12 Corporate liability
13 Sanctions and measures



















In Chapter II: Section 2 is concerned with issues of Procedural law and Section 3 with Jurisdiction. Chapter I of the Convention provides the use of terms; "international co-operation" and "final provisions" are the subjects of Chapters III and IV respectively. The full text of the [Convention on Cybercrime][2] can be accessed through the website of the Official Journal of the European Union.

Child Pornography

  • Ο περί Καταπολέμησης της Εμπορίας Προσώπων και περί Σεξουαλικής Εκμετάλλευσης Ανηλίκων Νόμος του 2000 (3(I)/2000)
  • Ο περί της Συμβάσεως περί των Δικαιωμάτων του Παιδιού (Κυρωτικός) Νόμος του 1990 (Αρ. 243 του 1990)'
  • (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Convention on Cybercrime, Budapest 23.11.2001

Ο περί Καταπολέμησης της Εμπορίας Προσώπων και περί Σεξουαλικής Εκμετάλλευσης Ανηλίκων Νόμος του 2000

Definitions according to the Cyprus law
«...

  • «child»: a person under the age of eighteen years.
  • «trafficking»: any action that facilitates the entrance, transit or residence in, or egression from the state of the Republic of Cyprus of adults or children, and aims at the sexual exploitation of these persons.
  • «pornography»: the by any means visual or audio recording of any form of sexual act on any person.
  • «child sexual exploitation»:
    • Exhortation or force over a child to participate in any form of sexual act.
    • Sexual exploitation of a child through its prostitution or participation in other forms of sexual practices.
    • Sexual exploitation of a child through its participation in pornographic material, including the production, distribution and selling, trading or possessing of such material.

...»
Article 3 of the Law prohibits sexual exploitation and maltreatment of children.
Article 4 of the Law prohibits the production, acquisition, possession, distribution, import and export of child-pornographic material.

Ο περί της Συμβάσεως περί των Δικαιωμάτων του Παιδιού (Κυρωτικός) Νόμος του 1990 (Αρ. 243 του 1990) – (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child
The [Convention][3] has been signed and ratified by nearly all countries ― members of the UN organization (the USA and Somalia have signed but not yet ratified the Convention).

The incorporation of the Convention on the Rights of Child into the Republic's municipal law is stated in [Law 243 of 1990][4]. The [ratification][5] of the Convention by the Republic is also recorded in the website of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. The Convention has been repeatedly mentioned in statements made by the Representative of the Republic to the UN ([1998][6], [1999][7], [2000][8]).

The full text of the Convention can be accessed through the websites of [UNICEF][9], the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, and the English edition of the [Social Welfare Services of the Ministry of Labour and Social Insurance][10].

Article 34, listed below, is of particular importance:
«...
Article 34

States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:

  • The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;
  • The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;
  • The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

...»

Ο περί της Σύμβασης κατά του Εγκλήματος μέσω του Διαδικτύου (Κυρωτικός) Νόμος του 2004 (22(III)/2004) – Convention on Cybercrime, Budapest 23.11.2001

The Convention on Cyber crime and Law 22(III)/2004 have been mentioned in the "Internet Usage" section. In respect to child pornography, the Convention states the following:
«...
Article 9 ― Offenses related to child pornography

1. Each Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offenses under its domestic law, when committed intentionally and without right, the following conduct:

  1. Producing child pornography for the purpose of its distribution through a computer system;
  2. Offering or making available child pornography through a computer system;
  3. Distributing or transmitting child pornography through a computer system;
  4. Procuring child pornography through a computer system for oneself or for another person;
  5. Possessing child pornography in a computer system or on a computer-data storage medium.

2. For the purpose of paragraph 1 above, the term "child pornography" shall include pornographic material that visually depicts:

  1. a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct;
  2. a person appearing to be a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct;
  3. realistic images representing a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct.

...»

Other conventions:
[The Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction][11]
[The European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Concerning the Custody of Children ][12]

Racial Discrimination

(UN) The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Status of ratification of the Convention..
Status of ratification of amendment of Article 8 of the Convention..
The Republic of Cyprus has signed and ratified the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination on 1966 and 1967 respectively. The Convention has been repeatedly mentioned in statements made by the Representative of the Republic to the UN ([1999][13], [2002][14]).
The full text of the Convention can be accessed through the websites of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

Ο περί πρόσθετου πρωτοκόλλου στη Σύμβαση κατά του Εγκλήματος μέσω του Διαδικτύου αναφορικά με την Ποινικοποίηση Πράξεων Ρατσιστικής και Ξενοφοβικής Φύσης που Διαπράττονται μέσω Συστημάτων Ηλεκτρονικών Υπολογιστών (Κυρωτικός) Νόμος του 2004 (26(ΙΙΙ)/2004)
The law contains illegal action for distributing without any right racist or xenophobic content that promotes racial discrimination, hate or violence. In addition, it includes as illegal threats or swearing through the computer people that is based on hate, racism or xenophobia.

Internet Security ― Protection of Personal Data

  • Ο περί ρυθμίσεως ηλεκτρονικών επικοινωνιών και ταχυδρομικών υπηρεσιών νόμος του 2004 (112(I)/2004) (Μέρος 14)
  • Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector (Directive on privacy and electronic communications)



Issues concerning Internet Safety and Protection of Personal Data are addressed in Part 14 of the Law 112(I)/2004. Part 14 of the above mentioned law (Security, Secrecy and Data Protection) is essentially the incorporation of Directive 2002/58/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 July 2002 concerning the processing of personal data and the ?protection of privacy in the electronic communications sector into the Republic's municipal law. The [Directive 2002/58/EC][15] can be accessed through the Portal to the European Union Law.

In addition to Law 112(I)/2004, the Office of the Commissioner of Electronic Communications & Postal Regulations has published a number of regulations and decrees governing relevant issues.

Sexual Exploitation (of adults) ― Trafficking

Ο περί Καταπολέμησης της Εμπορίας Προσώπων και περί Σεξουαλικής Εκμετάλλευσης Ανηλίκων Νόμος του 2000 (3(I)/2000)

Law 3(I)/2000 has been mentioned in the "Child Pornography" section. In respect to adults, the Law states the following:
(Article 3: Sexual exploitation)
The following are prohibited:
a) Profiteering by sexually exploiting adult persons in the cases that:

  1. coercion, force, violence or threats have been used or
  2. the subjects have been deceived or
  3. essential pressure, or authoritative power have been used in the extent that the subjects were forced to submit.

b) Profiteering by trafficking of adult persons for sexual exploitation, given that any of the conditions listed above holds true.

References

  1. http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/mfa2006.nsf/All/616D9952B6191B85C2257419005129D4?OpenDocument List of International Treaties and Conventions
  2. http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=185&CM=2&DF=10/03/05&CL=ENG Convention on Cybercrime
  3. http://treaties.un.org/Pages/Treaties.aspx?id=4&subid=A&lang=en United Nations Treaty Collection
  4. http://www.mlsi.gov.cy/mlsi/sws/sws.nsf/dmllegislation_gr/dmllegislation_gr?OpenDocument&Start=1&Count=1000&Expand=3
  5. http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/63ac64e773bf0ddac1256b6700638dbb?OpenDocument Convention on the Rights of the Child
  6. http://www.un.int/cyprus/children.htm Statement by the Representative of Cyprus to the 3rd Committee Mr. Demetris Hadjiargyrou on Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children
  7. http://www.un.int/cyprus/child54.htm Statement by the Representative of Cyprus to the 3rd Committee Mr. Demetris Hadjiargyrou on Agenda Item 112: Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children
  8. http://www.un.int/cyprus/child55.htm Statement by the Representative of Cyprus the 3rd Committee Mr. Demetris Hadjiargyrou on Agenda item 110: Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Children
  9. http://www.unicef.gr/reports/symb.php H Σύμβαση για τα Δικαιώματα του Παιδιού
  10. http://www.mlsi.gov.cy/mlsi/sws/sws.nsf/dmllegislation_en/dmllegislation_en?OpenDocument&Start=1&Count=1000&Expand=2 Social Welfare Services Legislation
  11. http://www.hcch.net/index_en.php?act=conventions.text&cid=24 Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
  12. http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/105.htm European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions concerning Custody of Children and on Restoration of Custody of Children
  13. http://www.un.int/cyprus/racial54.htm Statement by the Representative of Cyprus to the 3rd Committee Mr. Demetris Hadjiargyrou On Agenda Item 114: Elimination of Racism and Racial Discrimination
  14. http://www.un.int/cyprus/racial56.htm Statement by the Representative of Cyprus to the 3rd Committee Mr. Demetris Hadjiargyrou On Agenda Item 114: Elimination of Racism and Racial Discrimination
  15. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/ Access to European Union law